The Nature of Trauma and Dissociation

Strongly Disagree Disagree Does Not Apply Agree Strongly Agree I can distinguish and describe 3 different forms of post-traumatic stress and dissociative disorders I can explain a minimum of 4 concepts in the treatment of PTSD, complex trauma and dissociative disorders, including systemic, cognitive, psychoanalytic approaches I now understand and can outline 4 neurobiological features of PTSD, complex trauma and dissociative disorders, including brain and peripheral nervous system aspects I am able to apply the above to develop a contemporary treatment strategy in working with sufferers of PTSD, and to describe two clinical examples I can describe structural dissociation and the [...]

The Nature of Trauma and Dissociation2019-08-14T17:21:59+00:00

Selected bibliography – Dissociation and complex post-traumatic stress disorder

Badouk Epstein, O., Schwartz, J. & Wingfield Schwartz, R. (2011). Ritual Abuse and Mind Control: The Manipulation of Attachment Needs. London: Karnac Books. Boysen, G.A. (2011). The scientific status of childhood dissociative identity disorder: A review of published research. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 80(6): 329-334. Brown, D., Scheflin, A.W. & Hammond, D.C. (1998). Memory, Trauma Treatment, and the Law: An Essential Reference on Memory for Clinicians, Researchers, Attorneys, and Judges. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Brown, D.W., Frischholz, E.J. & Sche?in, A.W. (1999). Iatrogenic dissociative identity disorder: An evaluation of the scientific evidence. Journal of Psychiatry and Law 27: 549-637. Cardeña, E. & Gleaves, D.H. (2007). Dissociative [...]

Selected bibliography – Dissociation and complex post-traumatic stress disorder2019-05-30T19:09:21+00:00

Bibliography – Post-traumatic stress disorder

Bisson, J.I. (2007). Pharmacological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 13: 119-126. Bisson, J. & Andrew M. (2007). Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub3. Bisson, J.I., McFarlane, A.C., Rose, S., Ruzek, J.I. & Watson, P.J. (2009). Psychological Debriefing for Adults. In Foa, E.B., Hembree, E.A. & Rothbaum, B.O. (Eds.), Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD. Emotional Processing of Traumatic Experience: Therapist Guide. New York: Oxford University Press. Briere, J.N. & Scott, C. (2012). Principles of Trauma Therapy: A Guide to Symptoms, Evaluation and Treatment (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Cahill, S.P., Rothbaum, B.O., [...]

Bibliography – Post-traumatic stress disorder2019-06-05T19:28:22+00:00

Controversies about dissociation and the dissociative disorders

Over almost 40 years during which dissociation has been rediscovered and much clinical work and research has taken place with people with dissociative disorders, a number of controversies have developed, which are summarised here. What is the main aetiology of the dissociative disorders? Opinions about the aetiology of the dissociative disorders, and dissociative identity disorder (DID) in particular, can be divided in two main groups. One set of views proposes that in its severe form, pathological dissociation can affect functioning and quality of life substantially; that it is linked to chronic, usually developmental trauma leading to a disorganised attachment style. Another [...]

Controversies about dissociation and the dissociative disorders2019-06-05T19:27:15+00:00

Controversies about Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first included as a diagnosis in DSM-III in 1980, and since then there has been substantial growth in studies relating to this condition, both in the research and clinical contexts. There is now considerable consensus on key questions regarding the treatment of PTSD, although much research still remains to be done. This summary highlights some of the main conclusions which have been reached, as well as some of the remaining unresearched or controversial points. The effectiveness of different kinds of psychotherapy for PTSD Major sources are the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) guidelines for [...]

Controversies about Post-traumatic Stress Disorder2019-06-05T19:25:41+00:00

Complex PTSD and the dissociative disorders

The diagnosis of Complex PTSD Complex PTSD (C-PTSD) was first proposed as a new diagnosis by Judith Herman (1992a, 1992b). Since then, Herman,van der Kolk (1996) and a number of other specialists have been lobbying to get this diagnosis recognised as a separate entity in the DSM and / or ICD manuals, without success. Alternative names that have been proposed, but also rejected, have been Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS or DES), proposed by van der Kolk et al (2005) and, for children, (complex) developmental trauma disorder, proposed by van der Kolk (2005) and described in van der Kolk & Courtois (2005). C-PTSD is an [...]

Complex PTSD and the dissociative disorders2019-05-30T19:08:44+00:00

The Neurobiology of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

In DSM-5 (2013) Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was taken out of the chapter on anxiety disorders and placed in a new chapter, 'Trauma and stressor-related disorders'. Stress and trauma are understood to be similar in their impact on biological systems in the human body, although they are distinct in that trauma is always negative and overwhelming. The general stress response - a summary Selye (1956) developed the idea that when human beings, as well as most mammals, are exposed to a significant stressor, they typically respond with a 'general adaptation syndrome' - a system of reactions which can be described in three [...]

The Neurobiology of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder2019-05-30T19:09:22+00:00

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and its Treatment

Diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), DSM-IV and DSM-5  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is the name for a combination of severely disabling symptoms that have been caused by trauma, which is defined in DSM-5 as exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violation. The exposure may involve directly experiencing the event; witnessing the event in person; learning about the event occurring to a close family member or close friend; or first-hand experience of extreme exposure (although not exposure through media or television coverage unless that exposure is work-related). Diagnosis is generally based on the criteria set out in [...]

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and its Treatment2019-05-30T19:09:19+00:00

A summarised history of trauma and dissociation from Charcot to 1990

The idea of trauma has been adopted from medicine: a Greek word used by Hippocrates in its medical and common-sense meaning of physical injury. It was fundamental in the early theory of Freud, who first used it in 1893 and continued to use it throughout the 1890s. Freud adopted this term from Charcot (1885/1887/1889) and Janet (1889) in the metaphorical sense of psychic trauma. Psychoanalysis focused initially on the understanding and treatment of hysteria (Breuer & Freud, 1895/1955), and in the 1890s took environmental or external interpersonal trauma (such as by child sexual abuse) to be the main cause of hysteria. Laplanche & Pontalis (1967/1973) give a [...]

A summarised history of trauma and dissociation from Charcot to 19902019-06-05T19:23:17+00:00