Study Guide References

Adams, P.L. (1973). Obsessive Children. New York: Bruner/Mazel, Inc. Alvarez, A. (2010). "Levels of analytic work and levels of pathology: The work of calibration." The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 91: 859-878. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. Astor, J. (2004). "Response to Dr. Britton's paper." Journal of Analytical Psychology, 49: 491-493. Astor, J. (2007). "Fordham, feeling, and countertransference: Reflections on defences of the self." Journal of Analytical Psychology, 52: 185-205. Balint, E. (1991). "One analyst's technique. In: Before I was I: Psychoanalysis and the Imagination" (pp. 120-129). London: Free [...]

Study Guide References2019-06-05T19:39:17+01:00

Key people and theoretical developments

1877 - Jean-Martin Charcot, at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, was the leading physician of his day working on nervous disorders and, in particular, hysteria (he has also been called the founder of modern neurology). He was the first to make the link between hysteria and underlying trauma (Lectures on the diseases of the nervous system: Delivered at La Salpêtrière, 1877). 1894 - Charcot's work on hysteria was taken up and much developed by his pupil, Pierre Janet, who laid down the foundation stones of trauma theory which are still sound today. Through extensive study, observation, and the use of hypnosis, Janet concluded [...]

Key people and theoretical developments2019-05-30T18:59:38+01:00


'Borderline' and 'Narcissistic': The problem with terms The influential American diagnostic manual, the DSM, provides diagnostic criteria for what it terms 'narcissistic personality disorder' and 'borderline personality disorder', yet the whole concept of regarding personality traits as 'disorders' has met with fierce criticism in recent years, amongst both patients and analysts. Some regard the concept of psychological 'disorders' as reinforcing an unnecessary and inappropriate medical diagnostic model; some see it as being rooted in a limiting post-Enlightenment ideology of rigid classification and marginalisation of anyone not deemed to be suitably socially acquiescent (see Richard Bentall, 2004; Foucault, 1961); and many patients [...]


Therapeutic approaches to working with fragile selves

The main treatment for individuals with borderline and narcissistic personality traits is centred on various forms of psychotherapy, including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT). Contemporary treatments commonly involve mentalization-based therapy, transference-focused psychotherapy, and schema-focused psychotherapy. Individual and group psychotherapy may be also useful in helping people with narcissistic and borderline personality disorders. Indeed, the success of psychotherapeutic treatments for individuals with borderline and narcissistic personality traits is one of the most striking developments that has happened in the analytic world since Freud's original formulations in 1914. Whereas Freud regarded narcissistic traits as largely untreatable in the psychoanalytic