Historical timeline showing key discoveries and publications that have impacted on the development of psychobiology

Descartes, René 1637 Discours de la Méthode (1637). Meditations on First Philosophy (1641). Description of the Human Body (1647). Passions of the Soul (1649). Mind-body dualism Hume, David 1739 A Treatise of Human Nature (1739). An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding (1748). Causality Schopenhauer, Arthur 1818 The World as Will and Representation (1818 - 1844). Unconscious; drives; importance of experience. Bernard, Claude 1858 Principes de Médecine Expérimentale (1858-1877). An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865). Milieu intérieur (homeostasis) Broca, Paul 1861 Sur le principe des localisations cérébrales (1861). Perte de la parole, ramollissement chronique et destruction partielle du lobe antérieur [...]

Historical timeline showing key discoveries and publications that have impacted on the development of psychobiology2020-02-05T14:08:31+00:00

Neurobiology and its Applications to Psychotherapy – II

Strongly Disagree Disagree Does Not Apply Agree Strongly Agree I am able to describe the inflammatory process as a response to stress, and to outline at least 2 impacts on the systems of the body (autonomic nervous system, HPA axis, neuroendocrinology) I can explain human vulnerability to stress and distinguish developmental factors from adult experiences I have increased understanding of the interaction between emotion and physiology and am to be able to discuss at least 2 current theories on the relationship between the mind and physiology I can explain recent findings on the relationship between diet and the inflammatory response, and [...]

Neurobiology and its Applications to Psychotherapy – II2019-08-14T17:21:07+01:00

Recommendations for psychotherapists studying neurobiology

Authored by Henry Strick van Linschoten A difficult subject Neurobiology, even more than biology in general, has become deeply rooted in a multidisciplinary background. As a result, a full insight and evaluation capability of neurobiological research requires a reasonable command of a number of sub-disciplines, including biology itself, chemistry, biochemistry, physics and computer science. Nevertheless, there are possibilities for an educated professional from a different discipline such as psychology to not only make sense of what is involved in neurobiological research findings, but to do this at a level substantially ahead of journalistic popularisation. Character of the module's study material The [...]

Recommendations for psychotherapists studying neurobiology2019-08-22T15:11:56+01:00

Neuroanatomical vocabulary and concepts

Authored by Henry Strick van Linschoten The nervous system The human nervous system works closely together with the endocrine system to channel, process and integrate information about the environment and about the body as a whole, and to take action or not, on a macroscopic or microscopic, external or internal scale, as a result. All animals (with the exception of sponges) have at least a rudimentary nervous system. The modern view is that all vertebrates (i.e. including fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds) rely on a central nervous system (CNS) that includes the spinal cord, hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain and optical nerve. The [...]

Neuroanatomical vocabulary and concepts2019-08-22T15:11:18+01:00

Some basics of human biology

Authored by Henry Strick van Linschoten Quick navigation The cellular basis of life Evolution Genetics Embryology and the prenatal period Phylogeny and ontogeny Epidemiology Homeostasis The heart and cardiovascular system The immune system The endocrine system and hormones Sexuality and reproduction Nutrition and the digestive system Complex behavior Ageing While the human mind cannot be reduced to physiological properties, psychology is grounded in biology. Psychological understanding and psychotherapeutic practice are thus significantly enriched by a good knowledge of biology. Modern biology, the "science of life", is informed by a number of principles that give a strong unity to the subject: Life [...]

Some basics of human biology2019-08-22T15:10:32+01:00

The neurobiological contribution to psychotherapy

Authored by Henry Strick van Linschoten Understanding of emotions Emotions are widely held to involve a subjective element, sometimes distinguished as a feeling. However, if emotions are also identified with observable bodily phenomena the question then arises as to how we can be sure that the subjective, emotional state corresponds to, let alone matches, the physiological dimension of that state - whether the emotion is definable as a facial expression, as substances in the blood, or as activity in certain parts of the brain. While there is some controversy over whether emotions originate in the cerebral cortex, in evolutionarily older parts [...]

The neurobiological contribution to psychotherapy2019-08-22T15:09:47+01:00

Controversies: Genetic and environmental influences

Authored by Henry Strick van Linschoten All biologists recognise that under no circumstances can genes and the environment function or exist without each other: all life consists of cells and all cells contain DNA. The DNA molecule itself is inert and cannot be connected with any activity or influence unless it is embedded in a living cell, while a cell cannot live on its own, but needs an environment in which to live. Genetic influences are traditionally contrasted with environmental effects. Biologists define environment in to cover everything that is not inherited from the DNA of the parents. "Environment" here includes [...]

Controversies: Genetic and environmental influences2019-08-22T15:09:05+01:00

Controversies: drugs versus talking therapies

Authored by Henry Strick van Linschoten Ingesting psychoactive, "mind-altering" or "mood-changing" drugs or substances has been a human option for millennia: there are records of the use of alcohol, opium and marijuana many thousands of years BC. Psychoactive drugs are substances, whether solid, liquid or gas and however introduced into the body, that change the way a person thinks, feels or behaves by changing (something in) the functioning of the brain. For the biological effect of substances it makes no difference whether they are prescription medicines, recreational drugs, legal or illegal, over-the-counter medication, alternative remedies, or not regarded as "drugs" at [...]

Controversies: drugs versus talking therapies2019-08-22T15:08:25+01:00

The neurobiological basis of human relationships: a summary of concepts and underlying studies

Authored by Henry Strick van Linschoten Attunement When we speak of attunement in psychotherapy, it is possible to recognise and describe significant physical, bodily elements in what is going on in line with the non-dualist ideas about mind and body. Apart from what is perceived to happen psychologically, body systems, organ systems, parts of the body are in tune, are running synchronously and this is directly connected or perhaps even partly identified with the psychological sense of the attunement. Attunement has to a limited extent been studied in biology and medicine, but it has a large component that is seen to [...]

The neurobiological basis of human relationships: a summary of concepts and underlying studies2019-08-22T15:06:36+01:00